Basic (Intuitive) Perspective
The earliest human generated images, represented by the cave paintings in Lascaux (France) were representational and used many abstraction techniques. Some of the drawings used line and portrayed animals as outlined shapes as well as shapes of value. The drawings indicate a fairly sophisticated knowledge of anatomy, motion and aspects of storytelling and even invocation of supernatural, however, they do not depict scenes with environments nor do they include much that can be interpreted as depth, perspective or form.
It’s not clear when or how humans begin or began to recognize distance or depth as part of their graphic art. The earliest recorded pure landscape art appeared in frescos in Minoan Greece circa 1500 BCE. The representation of depth in these works and in Chinese art of a similar time is closer to symbolism than realism.
So much for art history, there is a wealth of information to be found in art libraries and on the web regarding such subjects. To be more consistent with the FAS approach to understanding art skills, you should look to your personal experience regarding awareness of such basic ideas that objects appear larger when they are close to you than when they are distant.
When someone who has any experience with